Newsletter #14


Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems - North and South America.

Editor: Prof. Rolf D. Reitz
Mechanical Eng. Dept.
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 63706

Newsletter # 14 - September, 1992


The Fifth ILASS Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems was held May 18-20, 1992, at the San Ramon Marriott Hotel, San Ramon, California. The meeting was a great success with 127 attendees. Thanks are due to the conference organizers, Dr Chris Edwards (Program Chairman) and Lee Dodge (Papers Chairman). 41 presentation papers and 10 poster papers were given on subjects that included Spray Combustion, Atomization Processes, Spray Modeling, Agricultural, Industrial and Coating Sprays, Instrumentation and Atomizer Design. Copies of the book of Paper Abstracts are available from Dr Chris Edwards, Sandia National Laboratories, Div. 8362, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (Phone: (510) 294-2008) at a cost of $50. Highlights of the ILASS-92 Conference included a tour of the U.S. Department of Energy Combustion Research Facility at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, and a tour of Aerometrics, Inc., Sunnyvale Research and Development Laboratories. The Annual General Meeting of ILASS was also held during the meeting and the minutes of that meeting are given below.

Minutes of ILASS Annual General Meeting - May 20, 1992

The Chairman, Professor Norman Chigier, convened the Annual General Meeting at 11:05 am. He announced that ILASS currently has about 295 members and that it has continued to grow in strength since its inception six years ago. He noted, however, that the organization was originally dominated by industrial participation but that now the academic component has grown to the point that there were fewer industrial participants at this meeting than university participants. He expressed the concern of the ILASS Board that there may be a decline in interest from industry. He announced the appointment of a new Advisory Committee, to be made up of high level executives from various industries, to help deal with this problem. In addition, the ILASS Industrial committee (Chairman Professor D. Senser) has agreed to explore methods to search out new members from industry.

Professor Chigier called for a vote of thanks to Conference Chairman Dr Chris Edwards and Papers Chairman Lee Dodge for their help in preparing the conference. Dr Edwards announced that the meeting was attended by 127 registrants and that there were 41 presentation papers and 10 poster papers. 9 manufacturers were represented at the industrial exhibits. Dr Edwards also announced that a record 105 members attended the Sandia lab tour! ILASS members also thanked the conference coordinators, C. Fugazzi and C. Green for their help in making the conference a success.

A motion was made to approve the minutes of the previous Annual General Meeting which was held in conjunction with the 4th ICLASS meeting in Gaithersburg, MD., July 17, 1991. The motion was passed unanimously. The new ILASS treasurer (Dr Jan Kennedy) reported that ILASS funds are currently being switched from Cleveland to Hartford following the resignation of W. Haney, with a current balance of $28,276.

Professor Chigier then announced that ILASS-93 will be a three day meeting to accommodate the increasing number of papers being submitted to ILASS, and will include presentations from invited speakers and exhibits by manufacturers of spray equipment. The meeting will be held in Boston on May 18-20, 1993. The Conference Chairman will be Professor Jim Peters (University of Illinois) and the Local Committee Chairman will be Rick Slagle (Oxford Lasers, Acton, MA). ILASS members were encouraged to prepare papers for the meeting. The Chairman also encouraged members to attend the 5th ICLASS meeting which will be held in Rouen, France, July 18-22, 1994.

ILASS members were also encouraged to submit revised versions of their papers for publication to the Atomization and Sprays Journal. Professor Chigier announced that 103 papers have been received by the Journal so far and 34 have already been printed.

The Chairmen of the ILASS Technical Committees which met on Monday, May 18 then made their presentations (summaries of these reports are included in the Appendix).

The final item of business at the meeting concerned a proposal to change the ILASS constitution and to elect new officers. Recent events such as the death of Ed Crosby have emphasized the need for long range planning on the makeup of the ILASS Board of directors and the need to bring younger members into the Board. In order to help bring about these changes, the following items were voted on at the meeting.

A motion was made by O. Gulder (seconded by T. Koblish) to change the ILASS constitution so that the terms of the Chairman and Vice-Chairman are extended from 2 to 3 years. In addition, to maintain continuity, the terms of the treasurer and secretary are to be reduced from 4 to 3 years (with a maximum of 3 and 2 consecutive terms for the treasurer and secretary, respectively). Consistent with the above 3 year cycle, the period required before any past officer can be re-elected to his former post is reduced from 4 to 3 years. The motion was carried unanimously.

A motion was then introduced by J. Tishkoff (seconded by A. Ateshkadi) that the current ILASS Executive committee (Chairman N. Chigier, Vice-Chairman S. Samuelsen, Treasurer J. Kennedy and Secretary R. Reitz) remain on for one additional year. This motion was carried unanimously. A motion was made by C. Presser (seconded by C. Lipp) to re-elect Dr J. Tishkoff to the ILASS Board for a second six year term and to elect Dr J. Bellan as a new Board member to serve in the place of Professor A. Lefebvre, who will become an ex-officio member of the board.

The ILASS Board then announced the names of two additional new members to serve on the Board: Professor J. Peters who will serve out the remaining 4 years of Ed Crosby's term and Dr C. Edwards who will serve out the remaining 2 years of H. Simmons term. Ex-Chairman Harold Simmons will also become an ex-officio member of the ILASS Board. The above changes have the effect of bringing three active spray researchers to the ILASS Board and ensures strong leadership during the process of restructuring the Board.

The Annual General Meeting was adjourned at 12:00 pm.

Signed _______________________ Rolf D. Reitz, Secretary

ILASS Journal, Atomization and Sprays

ILASS members who attended the ILASS-92 Conference in San Ramon received personal subscriptions to the ILASS Journal Atomization and Sprays . These subscriptions cover the period from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 1992 and include Volume 2, issues 1 to 4. Members are urged to persuade the libraries of their institutions to subscribe to Atomization and Sprays . Annual subscription rates are $35 for ILASS members and $135 for institutional libraries.

ILASS members are also urged to consider the journal, Atomization and Sprays, as the first choice for submission of manuscripts for publication in an archival journal. It has the advantage of being read by all experts in the field and those who are interested in learning about atomization and sprays. Over 100 papers have been submitted to the Journal so far. Three copies of manuscripts should be submitted to the editor, Dr. N. Chigier, Mechanical Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, U.S.A.


In keeping with the tradition of alternating between the East and West coasts for the ILASS-Americas annual conferences, the next meeting is to be held in Boston, May 18-20, 1992. The conference organizer will be Professor Jim Peters (Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois, 1206 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, Phone: (217) 333-3237). The Local arrangements chairman will be Rick Slagle (Oxford Lasers, Inc., 33 Nagog Park, P.O. Box 2620, Acton, MA 01720-6620, Phone: (508) 264-9110 Fax: (508) 263-2868). Papers and posters will be solicited on subjects dealing with atomization and spray processes for this meeting. Abstracts should be submitted to Jim Peters.


Spray researchers and colleagues around the world were saddened by the recent death of Emeritus Professor Edwin Johansen Crosby. Professor Ed Crosby of the University of Wisconsin, Madison was a founder and member of the Board of Directors of ILASS-Americas, as well as one of the founders of the International ICLASS colloquia. Ed, who retired last October because of his illness, died at home of cancer on December 25, 1991. Conference attendees at ILASS-92 each received a copy of the classic book 'Atomization and Spray Drying,' written by W.R. Marshall, Jr. , who was Ed's thesis advisor. The book was kindly donated to ILASS members by Ed's wife, Mrs. Mary Ann Crosby, 1301 Winslow Lane, Madison, WI 53711.

Professor Crosby received Bachelor's degrees in mathematics and chemical engineering from Michigan State and the PhD degree from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1955. He then joined the E.I. du Pont company in Wilmington, Delaware and spent a year at the University of Delaware as a special lecturer in night courses. He then took a post as a Fulbright Research Scholar at the Technical University of Denmark in 1957, and returned to Madison as an assistant professor of chemical engineering in 1958. A full professor since 1966, Ed Crosby pioneered work in atomization and spray processing. Interested in international activities, he was a visiting professor in Denmark and Japan, and maintained ties with faculty in those countries. Students knew Ed as a professor who required them to do their best, and as a person who was always available to them. He was recognized by students with the Polygon Distinguished Instructor Award in 1976-77.

The Department of Chemical Engineering is working with the University of Wisconsin Foundation to establish the E.J. Crosby Undergraduate Scholarship Fund. Donations for this fund may be sent directly to the foundation at 150 E. Gilman St., Madison, WI 53703.

ASTM E29.04 Subcommittee

The ASTM E29.04 Subcommittee on Liquid Particle Characterization meeting was held in conjunction with the ILASS-92 conference at the San Ramon Marriott starting on Wednesday afternoon, May 20 and concluding on Thursday, May 21. The next meeting will be held at the Keller Conference Center of Penn State University on November 18-19, 1992. Contact Committee Chairman Thomas Bassett (Bete Fog Nozzle, Inc., 324 Wells Street, Greenfield, MA 01301 Phone: (413) 772-0846 for details about the meeting.


The sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ICLASS-94) will be held in Rouen, France, July 18-22, 1994. The Conference is being organized by Professor M. Ledoux, Dr Christophe Dumouchel and Papers Chairman, Professor Andrew Yule. The meeting will be held at the Palais des Congres that is located in one of the most beautiful parts of the city center. Accommodations will be available either in hotels or at the university of Rouen. The first call for abstracts for the paper will be in January 1993.


Edited Minutes of ILASS Technical Committee Reports

Physics of Atomization (15 Attendees - Chairman N. Chigier)

The technical committee planned to meet once year at ILASS-Americas conferences to provide a forum for discussion of technical details of interest to the members. It was decided that one of the objectives of the committee would be to write "position papers" and to develop a strategic plan for research, development and applications. The proceedings of the NSF Workshop, "Atomization and Sprays 2000" was cited as an example that provides a good basis for discussion and development of future trends. The chairman undertook to distribute reports of discussions to members of the committee and to prepare position papers, and an outline of the strategic plan for research.

The committee members introduced their research topics and discussed general areas in need of further research. These included: the non-linearity of the breakup process and the fact that a steady injection can lead to unsteady sprays - with pulsations and clustering of drops; the physics of high velocity air interactions with liquid surfaces; the need for more information on drag coefficients; the need to develop new instruments with increased accuracy, reliability and precision; the need to provide modelers with benchmark data; and the need for improved terminology.

Finally, committee members were urged to seek out other specialists or interested persons to become members of the committee.

Spray Measurements (15 Attendees - Chairman V. McDonell)

The purpose of this committee is to provide a forum for members interested in spray instrumentation to exchange ideas. Other roles of the committee were also identified: to help establish research priorities; to encourage collaborative research; to help accelerate the acquisition of understanding; to help members to establish contacts; and to stimulate the transfer of technology.

Spray Combustion (8 Attendees - Chairman C. Edwards)

A major objective of the meeting was to develop a strategic plan for the committee. Elements that were suggested for inclusion in the plan were: priorities for research, identification of persons in industry, universities and government with special interests in the research topic, ideas for collaborative research and any other matters of common interest. Also ideas were proposed about ways to improve ILASS Conferences.

The first topic of discussion was whether the Spray Combustion Committee should be merged with other technical committees (e.g., Gas Turbine, Diesel) since many attendees wanted to be involved in more than one technical committee. It was decided that the committee should remain autonomous, and unique roles were identified for the committee.

The second topic concerned industrial participation at the conference. It was suggested that papers should be invited from industry to start each session, and that those papers should establish a tie with applications. These papers should be given a little more time, and more flexibility in the length of the paper abstract. It was suggested that each technical committee organize sessions in its area at ILASS conferences. Another suggestion was to have directed discussions on one or two evenings during the meeting. The topics could be decided on in advance, or selected from facets of interesting papers at the meeting. A moderator would start the discussions, but they would not be another presentation period.

The final topic concerned the role that technical committees could play in summarizing the work presented at ILASS meetings for use by industry, scientists and funding agencies. This would constitute a valuable mini-review of the state of the field.

Modeling (5 Attendees - Chairman J. Bellan)

The modeling group discussed finding ways to interact more with industry, and to promote the interest of government agencies in emerging technologies in sprays modeling. It was felt that one benefit of modeling is that it allows results to be obtained more efficiently, with fewer experimental tests. Another benefit is that the physical understanding obtained from accurate models can be used to extend the ranges of validity of experimental correlations. An important purpose of the modeling group is to help guide industrial participants to find contacts to help them with their modeling problems.

Gas Turbines (9 Attendees - Chairman J. Kennedy)

Of the members (including 6 who could not attend), 53% were from industry, 33% from universities, and 13% from government. The topics that were discussed included comments about ILASS meetings, comments on the role of the Gas Turbine Committee, the need for communication, areas of research interest and a mission statement.

It was felt that effort should be taken to elevate ILASS to the level of an active Institute. Factors that would be helpful would be to become more industrially oriented and attract more industrial participation, to show more applications in presentations, and to instruct authors about the importance of good abstracts and presentation materials. Also it would be helpful to move the meeting time further away from that of the ASME meeting.

It was also felt that members should be able to have membership on multiple technical committees. Student participation should be encouraged as a means of attracting future members. An abbreviated membership list with members areas of interest should be sent to members to help increase communication.

A mission statement was formulated by the technical committee and it was suggested that this form of mission statement should be considered by all of the technical committees:
_ To develop ILASS-Americas to the level of an institute for the dissemination of gas turbine information to the spray atomization community. To take the importance of ILASS-Americas to the top levels within our own industry.

Diesel (14 Attendees - Chairman R. Reitz)

Time was spent discussing the need to increase the presence of diesel engine research and to seek new members, particularly from industry. Government emissions regulations are presenting new challenges to the industry, and this provides increased incentive and opportunities for research in diesel engines. Controlling the fuel injection process was identified as being a key to improving engine performance.

Considerable time was spent discussing unique aspects of diesel fuel sprays that impact engines. For example, the fact that the spray is dense introduces special challenges to experimentalists. This was seen at the conference where some people reported that big drops are located at the edge of diesel sprays, while others found that the big drops are at the center of the spray. One role of the diesel committee would be to encourage experimentalists with these kinds of conflicting results to talk together. A suggestion was made that perhaps models could be used to help resolve such conflicts.

Finally, it was suggested that the committee activity should be extended to include spark-ignited and other fuel injected internal combustion engines as well.

Industrial (17 Attendees - Chairman D. Senser)

The committee spent time organizing a session of both survey and technical papers for ILASS-93. The papers include topics in consumer